Thursday, May 21, 2020
Introduction To Management Sharon Toney SUNY Empire State College Ethical Behavior In this chapter we look at the ethical behavior when it comes to business management. Ethics is defined as the code of moral principles that sets standards of good or bad, or right or wrong, in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s conduct. You learn how ethical dilemmas complicate the workplace and how high ethical standards can be maintained. Social responsibilities and governance plays a part in ethical behavior as well. Ethical behavior is that which is accepted as Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"rightÃ¢â¬ as opposed to Ã¢â¬Å"badÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"wrongÃ¢â¬ . For the reason an action is not illegal does not necessarily make it ethical in a given situation. Values vary, so that brings upÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Social responsibilities is an obligation of the organization to act in ways that serve both its own interest and the interest of its many stockholders. An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s social performance can be evaluated on how well it meets economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary responsibilit ies. Corporate strategies in response to demands for socially responsible behavior include obstruction, defense, accommodation, and pro action, with more progressive organizations taking proactive stances. Corporate governance is the responsibility of a Board of Directors to oversee the performance by top management of a firm. Managers should exercise ethical self-governance by making sure that performance is achieved with commitments to high ethical standards and by socially. When governance is weak and the corporate scandals occur, you will sometimes see government stepping in to try and correct things for the future. Laws are passed and regulating agencies are put in place in an attempt to better control and direct business behavior. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act is an example. It was passed by Congress in 2002 in response to public outcries over major ethics and business scandals; its goal is to ensure that top managers properly oversee the financial conduct of their organizations. The refore, ethical behavior plays an important role in the workplace as these principles determine the manner in which tasks are conducted by individuals, the moralShow MoreRelatedEthical Leadership : Unethical Behavior1568 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEthical Leadership With all the recent unethical behavior in high profile cases. Someone may ask is there such a thing as ethical leadership? Leadership behaviors have a direct impact on the effectiveness and trust of the leader, the followers, and the organization. In the recent past there have been organizations rocked by scandal and impropriety stemming from how a leader acted or did not act such as: Ã¢â¬Å"the alleged cover-up by Penn State University senior administrators of criminal acts perpetuatedRead MoreFinancial Performance, Reward And Ethical Behaviors Within The World Of Business782 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWe will review the most advantageous methods of investing and explore the Budgetary Performance, Reward and Ethical Behaviors within the world of business. We will explore LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors, ethics, and management style. Firstly, having, someone with LindaÃ¢â¬â¢s abilities when coping with and operating many different sides of the accounting and work with many different variables. A person who understands how to shift costs for the short term benefit or long term benefit in order to survive and be profitableRead MoreUnethical Behavior And Ethical Behavior1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUnethical behaviour and ethical behaviour are two factors that are found to be very different around the world. Ethical behaviour can be seen to come from an an individual with a high morality and proper conduct. Unethical behavior, defined as behaviour that violates generally accepted moral norms (Jones, 1991) can usually come from an individual that does not abide by the rules of morality. The professional world is where ethical and unethical behaviour is a constant topic. The professional worldRead MoreEthical Ethics And Ethical Behavior1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesethical behavior is the guidelines of behavior perceiv ed in respect to a specific class of human activities or a specific group, society, and culture. If you are ethical, it means you are morally right. If you are unethical, then you are morally wrong. However, how do we determine what is exactly right or wrong? Do we know if we are ethical or unethical? I believe that how people define Ã¢â¬Å"ethical behaviorÃ¢â¬ or what people think constitutes ethical can be vary depending on culture we grow up with andRead MoreEthical Ethics And Ethical Behavior Essay2251 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesEthical conduct is a representation of leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s self-expression of who they really are, and with past multi-billion dollar companies reported committing unethical and unmoral acts of behavior, it is imperative that leaders fully comprehend the ramifications related to their unethical behavior. Furthermore, an ethical virtue demonstrated by a leader paves the foundation for their followers to behave with the same ethical behavior established within the organization thus establishing a followersÃ¢â¬â¢Read MoreWhat Do You Think Would Be More Effective for Shaping Long-Term Ethical Behavior in an Organization: a Written Code of Ethics Combined with Ethics Training or Strong Ethical Leadership? Which Would Have More Impact on You? Why?2200 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesEthical concerns are an essential area in business practices, which is applied within organizations to examine ethical principles and ethical dilemmas arisen. In order to form long-term ethical conduct within an organization, usually, a company would organize for ethical business policies, for example, establishing codes of ethics combined with training programs, or/and execute these ethical policies which means Ã¢â¬Å"leadership in delegation, communication and motivation of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s ethical positionRead MoreThe Ethics Of Ethical Behavior1491 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Ethics can be described as the ideals and principles considered by individuals when determinin g acceptable behavior. Many individuals take into account socially established normalities and expectations when examining their own behavior. However, I find my ideals to be tied to Jean Paul SartreÃ¢â¬â¢s existential views which assert that ethical behavior should be rooted in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s personal rationÃ alizations and a personÃ¢â¬â¢s actions should reflect free agency. Existentialism is a theory that stresses choiceRead MoreEthical Behavior And Ethical Behaviour1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthical behaviour is the ability to make decisions to act in the morally acceptable manner Dalke Ankerstar, 1995, p.7). It is critical in any organization because it helps in building a good reputation that becomes a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s selling point. A good reputation enhances mutual understanding between the company and its publics that is the stakeholders, government, employees, customers and the general public. It gains the company a competitive edge in the business environment. It is a n essential elementRead MoreThe Challenge of Ethical Behavior823 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Challenge of Ethical Behavior in Other Countries The requirements of day-to-day organizational performance are so compelling that there is little time or inclination to divert attention to the moral content of organizational decision-making. Morality appears to be so obscure in nature that it lacks substantive relation to performance. An effective organizational culture should encourage ethical behavior and discourage unethical behavior. Unfortunately, ethical behavior may end up costingRead MoreEthical Behavior Essay1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Importance of Ethical Behavior and its Significance in Persuasion Ethical behavior is often seen as amoral when used for persuasive purposes. This is possible because persuasion may be used in unethical situations as well as ethical situations. Either way, it depends upon the person who is trying to persuade others. Adolf Hitler is an excellent example of someone who persuaded millions of people to behave unethically. On the other hand, Mother Teresa used persuasion for ethical reasons by caring
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Death of Socrates resides in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It is by Jacques Louis David, a French painter from the eighteenth century. This particular piece was done in 1787 about an event that occurred 399 BC. Socrates was faced with a legal decision to renounce his teachings or drink a cup of hemlock, killing himself. SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢s teachings were hugely influential in Greece at that time and it sparked recognizable change in Athens particularly. Athenian authority saw his revolutionary thought as a threat and because of his teaching he refused to renounce his teaching. Even without this knowing the dramatic story of the great thinker and his demise, DavidÃ¢â¬â¢s piece is profoundly striking. The movement and placement of each character as well as the balance of shape and color provide a certain attraction to this piece. Additionally, it provides a great example of the intriguing cross between art and The Academy. David intelligently pays tribute to the height and power of ancient philosophy as well as modern art and this marriage makes for a greatly impactful piece of art. At first impression, the movement and layout are the most arresting part of this piece. Socrates, propped up on his deathbed, appears strong and stoic but at the same time somber and delicate. The anatomic accuracy of Socrates as well as the other characters provides a geometric structure. Whereas the light suspension of the different fabrics in the painting provide a soft fluidity and these twoShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Apology By Plato786 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessentencing of the philosopher Socrates. It reads as a firsthand account of the testimony from both Socrates and his accusers, more often than not Socrates has a rather strong rebuttal for the accusations however in the end it was still not enough to save him from conviction. This trail being the culmination of decades of teaching throughout Athens, to guide people to the truth that resides inside them. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Some of the ideas and teachings that come from Socrates in the Apology, are at timesRead MorePlato s The Trial And Death Of Socrates Essay1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s The Trial and Death of Socrates presents the reader with complex competing conceptions of what should be considered Ã¢â¬Å"the good lifeÃ¢â¬ . According to Socrates, Ã¢â¬Å"the most important thing is not life, but the good lifeÃ¢â¬ (Crito, 48b). The majority, who live a non-philosophical life, believes the goods of life include wealth, reputation, and honor: all things that can easily be taken away or destroyed. On the other hand, Socrates lives a philosophical life filled with self-sufficiency. He views wisdomRead MoreSo What Exactly Happens After Death? Do We Reincarnate1314 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSo what exactly happens after death? Do we reincarnate into a different form? Do we somehow take someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s body? The idea of what occurs after death has been controversy for many years. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s has been theories and evidence that try to understand what exactly happens. According to Socrates he believes in the idea that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s still life after death and the soul and the body are two separate things. Furthermore, his ideas would be considered what dualist beliefs. Meanwhile, another philosopherRead MoreFate Or Free Will?882 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesinexplicable. Philosophically, there is an extremely diaphanous line separating free will and fate. Free will resides within oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality; it has to do with the present. The how and when experiences that are within our controls that is free will. On the other hand, human beings do not have immortality, so one will never be capable enough to circumvent dying that is fate. Socrates was one of the most distinguished philosophers to demonstrate free will. He would demonstrate this by choosingRead MoreSocrates : The Power Of Knowledge932 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages philosopher Socrates touched many lives of the Athenians and lived to question the knowledge and intelligence of those he met. Socrates took joy in examining the world and self proclaims his own ignorance rather than living under the guise of being an expert. Student of Socrates, philosopher Plato grew in popularity around 400 B.C and strived to uncover the meanings behind ideas such as goodness, reality and beauty. While Socrates became infamous around Athens, and was later put to death for his coreRead MoreSocrates s Argument Against The Death Penalty1189 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSocrates was found guilty of the following accusations; corrupting the youth, believing in different gods, or being an atheist, and for Ã¢â¬Å"examiningÃ¢â¬ the heavens above and the earth below. He inclined for a fine that could be paid instead of facing banishment, however, the court decided to give him the death penalty. There he slept in prison when Criton approached and attempted to persuade him to e scape. He declined as it would go against his logic and reasoning he taught his whole life. Was it Ã¢â¬Å"justÃ¢â¬ Read MoreThe Body And The Soul1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAn Analysis of the Distinctions of the Body and the Soul in the Philosophy of Socrates This philosophical study will define the distinctions of the body and the soul as defined in the philosophy of Socrates. In the Phaedo, Socrates defines the important distinction between the Ã¢â¬ visibleÃ¢â¬ body and the Ã¢â¬Å"invisibleÃ¢â¬ substance of the soul. Socrates defines the temporal and changing nature of the visible body, which is impermanent. In contrast to this view, the soul is a higher form of incomposite energyRead More No Harm Can Come to a Good Man Essay1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa Good Man Whether Socrates is portrayed correctly or not, he certainly was a great man. His contribution to western thought cannot be denied. For even if his teachings were different from what they are known to be at present, his influence on Plato is immense. And so, it is no small matter to describe the tragic passing of such a man as Socrates was and remains for philosophy today. Yet in all the indignation which is expected to arise at the death of Socrates, the panache with which heRead MoreThe Fear Of Death Is Meaningless984 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe fear of death is meaningless in this concept. But what are we fearing in death? Is it the unimaginable or our life afterwards? Socrates does not seem to explain this; he simply summarizes that if you lead a life, such as seeking true wisdom, the idea of fear does not exist. What completely is death? He explains it as the separation of the soul and body, but is there actually more to that? For instance, what occurs to your body once you ar e liberated? How can the soul be called pure if it taintedRead MoreThe Soul Stays the Same in Plato1270 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"I think, Socrates, he said, that on this line of argument any man, even the dullest, would agree that the soul is altogether more like that which always exists in the same state rather than like that which does notÃ¢â¬ (Plato, Phaedo 79e) In this paper I will argue that the soul is not necessarily unchanging and eternal, as many of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments would suggest otherwise. The main reasons in support of this claim are that there are questionable conclusions that Plato had reached that challenge the
string(106) " policies with the economic performance of Germany H0: There is nothing unique about GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s success\." DETERMINANTS OF GERMANYÃ¢â¬â¢S ECONOMIC ROBUSTNESS: UNDERSTANDING THE SECRET BEHIND THE GERMAN ECONOMIC SUCCESS Ã¢â¬â A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY Germany is the largest national economy in Europe, the fourth-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and fifth by GDP (PPP) (2008). Since the age of industrialisation, the country has been a driver, innovator, and beneficiary of an ever more globalised economy. Germany is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s third largest exporter with $1. We will write a custom essay sample on Determinants of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Economic Robustness or any similar topic only for you Order Now 408 trillion exported in 2011 (Eurozone countries are included). Exports account for more than one-third of national output and the GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s strong export performance in goods or merchandise is also denoted by the term Exportweltmeister (world champion exporter). However, analysis of GermanÃ¢â¬â¢s economic history demonstrates that the country did not face constant growth throughout the years. It also had to face moments of recession just like other countries and its own past (reunification) appeared to have been a cause of GermanÃ¢â¬â¢s slow growth at times. Following are figures of GermanÃ¢â¬â¢s GDP throughout the last 3 decades which will help us to emphasise our statement. While the decrease in the year 1990s can be associated with the unification and the costs involved, that of 2010-2011, can be associated to the global recession that the world experienced then. Yet, even in the recession marred years, the German economy managed to stay stable as the world sixth largest country in terms of GDP (2009. ) Now, against the background of fragile global recovery and the intensification of the eurozone crisis, Germany has recorded strong GDP growth and a declining trend in unemployment. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the secret of such a robust economy? Referring to Germany, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said in December 1989 at a Strasbourg summit Ã¢â¬Å"We defeated the Germans twice! And now theyÃ¢â¬â¢re backÃ¢â¬ . Although this statement was related to politics, it appears to be relevant in the economic context as well. As such, our study will consist of analysing more in details the secret behind this particular success or consistency and will also involve comparison of countries which also have more or less the same pattern of Germany but still cannot reach their level of development to underline what are those parameters which make Germany so unique. Current Situation GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is holding up better than expected amid the EurozoneÃ¢â¬â¢s debt crisis, as robust demand from outside of Europe has helped offset weak activity on the continent. Several other factors contribute to GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s solid macroeconomic position. Germany is the only major advanced economy which had lower unemployment rate in 2012 than it had in 2007. The level of German GDP has increased by a cumulative 5. 8% since the beginning of 2010, compared to 2. 3% for the eurozone. The monetary conditions set for the entire eurozone by the ECB are accommodative for Germany given the strong cyclical position of its economy. As a consequence of safe-haven capital inflows, yields are also at extremely low levels. Furthermore, Germany has a strong net external creditor position and a large, albeit gradually declining, current account surplus. The German financial sector has stabilised since 2009 and liquidity is abundant in the current environment. However, meeting Basel III requirements will remain a challenge for German banks in light of modest profitability and still a high leverage. Since mid-2008, German banks have cut their total eurozone exposure by Ã¢â ¬332bn, a 30% fall, of which Ã¢â ¬187bn was withdrawn from Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal, a fall of 44%. Despite this fast pace of deleveraging, the quality of the remaining assets may well deteriorate further as the recession deepens in the periphery. In its semi-annual economic outlook, the German central bank raised its forecast for domestic GDP growth this year to 1. 0% from 0. 6% in the December outlook due to better-than-expected first quarter growth that was largely the result of strong exports to emerging markets. The upward revision brings economic activity near its potential growth rate of 1. 25. Growth in 2013 is seen at 1. 6%, down 0. point from DecemberÃ¢â¬â¢s forecast due to a statistical correction resulting from the revisions for this year. The Eurozone crisis Ã¢â¬Å"may have left its mark, but the good structural condition of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s economy and the robust global economy have maintained the upper hand,Ã¢â¬ Still, the outlook remains Ã¢â¬Å"highly uncertain,Ã¢â¬ with risks stemming Ã¢â¬Å"overwhelminglyÃ¢â¬ from external factors. While weak Eurozone g rowth in the debt crisis has already been factored in to the forecasts, GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s export-driven economy would be vulnerable to a Ã¢â¬Å"noticeable weakeningÃ¢â¬ of conditions outside of Europe. Germany remains exposed to the systemic component of the crisis. A significantly deeper recession of its large eurozone trading partners could also push Germany into recession with negative repercussions for the fiscal stance as well. Furthermore, additional sizeable contribution to eurozone bail-out funds, on top of the EFSF guarantees, could push German debt level above 90% of GDP, close to the upper limit Fitch generally considers consistent with a Ã¢â¬ËAAAÃ¢â¬â¢ rating. Materialisation of these risks would put downward pressure on the rating. Germany has all the ingredients of a declining public debt path. The economy is growing, budget deficit is moderate and nominal interest rates reached record low levels. Nevertheless the longer track record serves as a warning sign. Despite the fiscal rules of the eurozone, the debt/GDP ratio had increased to 83% by 2010 from 55% in 1995. During the 13 years of monetary union, the German debt ratio declined in only five years and has been above the 60% reference value since 2003. PROBLEM STATEMENT The problem that leads us to undertake this research is simple. Observing the amazing performance of Germany in the international market even in the period of recession, one wonder how this can be achieved by them while the others are still struggling. It becomes apparent that there must be some particular reasons behind this success. Research Question/Hypothesis H1: There is something unique that make Germany successful in the international market. H2: There is a relationship between the implementation of new economic policies with the economic performance of Germany H0: There is nothing unique about GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s success. You read "Determinants of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Economic Robustness" in category "Essay examples" They work on the same policies as other countries. OBJECTIVES AND AIMS OVERALL OBJECTIVE By this study, we hope to underline the policies that led Germany to success and from this knowledge, have a better understanding of the strengths and weakness of a business environment. Overall, we aim to have clear knowledge about impact of business environment on performance of business undertakings. In the long term, we can use the technique used in this research to analyse any business environment before setting up of any business firm. Also, we can advice other developing countries about implementing those policies which could benefit them considering their own business environment and also be on their path of development just like Germany. This research can be considered as a tool to determine business opportunities as well. SPECIFIC AIMS Understand the parameters that made the economy very strong in the market How is that amidst the gloom Germany continues to be the engine that drives the Eurozone economies, and also helping to bail out a few? How does the robust, high-tech manufacturing sector continue to be the export champion? What role do the academic system and Ã¢â¬Å"Deutsche TugendenÃ¢â¬ play in the success? What is the special Trade School training system that creates highly skilled technical workforce? Take into considerations other macroeconomic indicators particular to Germany Understand how one can take advantage of the strengths and weakness prevailing in its environment * Have valuable and actual knowledge of economic concepts BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE 1. (Raymond J. Ahearn and Paul Belkin; the German Economy and U. S. -German Economic Relations 2010) By most standards, post-war West Germany registered impressive economic performance in the first decades of its existence. But beginning in the mid-1990s, the German economy has been on a much lower growth path, averaging about 1. 5% of GDP per year. Unemployment has also risen steadily. These trends, which have been exacerbated by a steep 5% decline in German GDP growth in 2009, raise questions about the long-term vitality and strength of the German economy. A number of factors help explain GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s declining growth rate. One factor has been the high cost associated with integrating the formerly communist East German economy into the Federal Republic since reunification in 1990. A second has been the growing cost of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s generous social security and welfare programs and associated regulations which some believe may undercut incentives for work and entrepreneurship. A third is an economy that is more geared towards exporting than domestic investment and consumption. With declining economic growth and rising expenditures on social protections, Germany faces significant budgetary and resource constraints. A prosperous German state remains critical to both the U. S. and European economies. Difficulties Germany may have in regaining a stronger economic position are important concerns, affecting the U. S. -German partnershipÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to mutually address and manage a range of bilateral, regional, and global challenges. The report therefore elaborates on these themes in three parts: the first section examines GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s economic performance in historical perspective and assesses some of the domestic factors that may be contributing to GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s less than optimal performance; the second discusses the reform challenges facing GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s political leaders; and the third section evaluates a few salient U. S. -German economic policy differences and strains that seem to be influenced by GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s weakened economic situation. 2. Financial System Stability Assessment, report prepared by the Monetary and Capital Markets and European Departments and approved by Jose Vinals and Antonio Borges, June 20, 2011; results in the following main findings: The main findings of the FSAP are: * The German financial system is recovering from the global crisis, yet low profitability hampers many banksÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to build stronger buffers against the shocks that could hit the global economy and especially Europe; * Structural reforms are overdue. The Landesbanken require thorough restructuring and probably downsizing, but the imperative to loosen constraints and strengthen banksÃ¢â¬â¢ commercial orientation is more general; * The standard of financial sector regulation and supervision is high. The crisis showed that more timely information, additional on-site supervision, and follow up through forward-looking supervisory action are needed; and * The framework to manage financial crises has been enhanced significantly, particularly with the introduction of a new bank resolution regime. Deposit protection schemes need to be rationalized, and Germany should actively help efforts to develop mechanisms to deal with cross-border crises. Very interesting report, but emphasises on the financial sector of the country and its current scenario only. 3. Talking about articles with reference to the GermanÃ¢â¬â¢s secret for economic robustness, there are various available were the authors aim to point out these parameters which made Germany so powerful in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s market. As such, an article from www. guardian. co. k goes on saying: Ã¢â¬Å"Germany invested heavily in its Bavarian science and technology base, identifying future growth sectors and building clusters of excellence to attract investmentÃ¢â¬ ¦ itÃ¢â¬â¢s still Ã¢â¬Å"making stuffÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦ While the British focused on becoming lawyers and money men, Germany continued to respect engineering and making things (not just money)Ã¢â¬ . Mr James Dyson, Author of Ingenious Britain, did not agree that this par ameter was the cause behind the German success and responded to this statement by saying Ã¢â¬Å"In your coverage of the German success story, not a word has been printed on the German Ã¢â¬Å"housing marketÃ¢â¬ . It is as if this were detached from the overall economic and cultural formula. Is it not a fact that Germany has a large, affordable rented sector with secure tenancies that deters a quick- housing-buck mentality? Does this housing culture not sustain investment in proper wealth creation (ie manufacturing) and thereby reduce the cycles of property boom and bust? Ã¢â¬ Well, Mr Olaf Plotner the dean of executive education at the European School of Management and Technology (ESMT) in Berlin and author of Counter Strategies in Global Markets in his post in Forbes magazine also shares his views about the reasons to justify the GermanÃ¢â¬â¢s success. He goes on saying: Ã¢â¬Å"cooperation between unions and employers plays a major role in the success of German industry. But thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just one part of a much bigger pictureÃ¢â¬ ¦ German businesses have been able to avoid the focus on the short-term shareholder that dogs so many large companies elsewhere because of an ownership structure that seems unique to GermanyÃ¢â¬ ¦ the companies give importance to uniting ownership and management. Ã¢â¬ As of now, we have already different views from different people as they all try to explain the German success. Well, these views are not the only one. According to Mr Richard Anderson Business reporter for BBC News, Ã¢â¬Å"Germany is a country whose inhabitants work fewer hours than almost any others, whose workforce is not particularly productive and whose children spend less time at school than most of its neighbours. But still, the German economy is so powerfulÃ¢â¬ ¦why? Ã¢â¬ Mr Anderson structured is study under three main headings. Euro bliss Ã¢â¬ ¦. Germany has benefited greatly from the euro; Germany adopted a much weaker currency than would otherwise have been the caseÃ¢â¬ ¦ This has provided a terrific boost to German exports, which are cheaper to overseas consumers as a resultÃ¢â¬ ¦. Just as important are the relatively low levels of private debtÃ¢â¬ ¦ German companies and individuals refused to spend beyond their meansÃ¢â¬ ¦ Germans are uncomfortable with the concept of borrowing money and prefer to live within their own means. Ã¢â¬Å"In German, borrowing is Ã¢â¬ËschuldenÃ¢â¬â¢, [the same word for guilt. ] There is an attitude that if you have to borrow, there is something wrong with you,Ã¢â¬ Labour reforms Ã¢â¬ ¦the Social Democratic government was able to use its close ties with labour unions to push for moderation in wage inflation. The reforms laid the foundation for a stable and flexible labour market. While unemployment across Europe and the US soared during the global downturn, remarkably the jobless number in Germany barely flickered. German workers were simply willing to work fewer hours, knowing that they would keep their jobs because of it. Job skills And in Germany, there is fewer stigmas attached to vocational training and technical colleges than in many countries. Research Gap The read reports do not seem to treat with the actual factors behind the success, hence we believe into scope for our research. Since in these articles, the German economic history I study but then related to other topics just like in the case of US-German relationship or the study of the German financial markets. True that these reports will help us in our study and can be used as a basis, they surely permit us to look at the GermanÃ¢â¬â¢s economy from a different point of view. Most of reports seem to elaborate a lot on the negative features of the economy, not that we intend to ignore the negative features but what we are trying to do here is to explain how despite these features, Germany is able to hold such a position in the global market. Specifically we want to pinpoint the special policies which allow this achievement and propose economic models to other developing countries in order to permit them to also achieve such a miracle. Thus, reading the articles, we can see there are already numerous parameters that each of authors believed to be the one behind the success of Germany. Our study will therefore constitute in analysing these factors and comparing the performance of Germany with that of other countries which also have this factor. We will also try to analyse the impact that the implementation the each factor had on the economy of the country. To emphasize on the relevance of this research, we can another article by in the New York Times which states: Ã¢â¬Å"Germany had the formula right all along. Ã¢â¬ Hence, our study will be directed towards analysing all the various aspects that made the formula right and try to make it right in our business environment as well! RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Overview The research is a diagnosis research. In fact, a diagnosis research is one which is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can and is to be done about it. It aims at identifying the causes and helping to arrive at possible solutions. Diagnostic research probes into the reasons `why? and goes beyond the problems. Our research is directed towards giving us in-depth knowledge about the reasons which made Germany successful today and we are interested in knowing which of these can be used by other nations as well. Our study will be divided into the following chapters: Chapter 1: here we will deal with the introduction to the study and the aim and purpose of the same. The subject background will also be studied in this step. We intend to trace the economic history of Germany in this section from World War II till today; macro and micro economic variables will be explained and we can propose an elaboration on the economy theory that is followed by the country. Chapter 2: will be dealing with review of books, articles, research papers and journals published with respect to the topic and identification of the research gap. Chapter 3: will elaborate on the research design. Here the parameters that we aim to use in our research will also be defined. As such, the parameters that we wish to study are as follows: 1. GDP, 2. Debt to GDP ratio, 3. Unemployment, 4. Household debt, 5. Inflation, 6. Commodity price swings 7. Foreign trade Ã¢â¬â imports/exports, net surplus, 8. Social spending, 9. Education, 10. Healthcare, 11. Pension funds, 12. Manufacturing vs. agrosectors, 13. Private Public undertakings, 14. Patents 15. Innovation, 16. Mittelstand 17. Housing prices, 18. Real estate, 19. New firms reg. 20. Firms winding up, 21. New investments, 22. Banking, 23. M As abroad, 24. Fuel prices Chapter 4: the data collected will be analysed and interpreted I this chapter Chapter 5: appropriate findings can be drawn from the data processed and conlusion will follow Population and Study Sample Our study will require interaction with economic experts and other industry-related experts who will give us insight and information about the various policies that are prevailing in Germany and their impact on the economy. Sample Size and Selection of Sample Here, we can select purposive sample and we will require snowballing as a technique as well since our study is very particular and one expert might put us into contact with another of his colleagues. Sources of Data The main sources of data will be secondary but expertsÃ¢â¬â¢ insights in terms of interviews will constitute our primary data also. Collection of Data The secondary data will collected by visiting websites, reading books, analysing research papers, articles and other thesis. The primary data is collected by mean of interview. Data Analysis Strategies They will be use of regression analyse the percentage change that the implementation that each parameters did on the economy They will also be use of correlation to analyse the data from other countries which implemented each particular parameter. First, we will have to analyse each of these parameters in the German environment and then compare the German performance with other countriesÃ¢â¬â¢ which have the same potentiality. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF THE STUDY STRENGTHS * There is important number of secondary data available for the research making the researcher job simpler. The study of this topic will lead to actual application of various economic concept hence, better understanding of economics as a subject. * Study of business environment being the first step for any project development, this project has important scope for the researcher. WEAKNESSES * The study being somehow dependent on secondary data, there is chances that these might not be relevant leading to false co nclusions. * There might be a possibility that these policies which made Germany so successful cannot be transferred to any other country. In which case, our How to cite Determinants of GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s Economic Robustness, Essay examples
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Printing Press I believe that everyone has heard the phrase, "The pen is mightier than the sword." This statement I cannot argue, but the point I want to make is that the printing press is the mightiest of them all. The origin of printing itself was only the first stage in the development of books as we know them. To understand the modern book, one should know of its history and realize the gradual process it came from since the pre-written manuscript. THERE WERE FOUR DISTINCT PHASES IN THIS METAMORPHOSIS (Butler xi). 1. In the beginning, this was just a means for performing a writer's work more quickly, neatly, and cheaply than was possible by hand labor (Butler xi). 2. Only gradually did the early printers and their clients understand to accept the technical limitations of typography and to exploit its peculiarities (Butler xii). 3. The discovery of true publication (Butler xiii). 4. The printed book entered into the fourth phase of its metamorphosis - it became a major factor in history (Butler xiii). The origin of the mechanical process was the first step in books as we know them today (Butler xi). The earliest scribe, like the public, had learned to read in pen-written volumes and was unaware of anything else (Butler xi). The printer's problem was to invent a method for producing mass quantities of a standardized product (Butler xi). The printer was not free to produce a new product which might serve the same purpose as the old one (Butler xi). His goal was simply to copy the manuscript but to do this mechanically (Butler xii). The printer's task was far more difficult than we imagine (Butler xii). Many parts of the manuscript, which were time-saving and labor-saving tools for the scribe, were only additional hindrances for the printer (Butler xii). As printers and their customers learned to accept the technical limitations, the book they produced took on new forms and developed new cultural potentials (Butler xii). Calligraphic ornaments were replaced by those of typographic style, and all sorts of new facilities were provided for the reader - title pages, illustrations, maps, tables, indexes, etc. (Butler xii). The discovery of true publication was different than the manuscript economy. Under the manuscript economy, a writer responded to current demands. He copied books to order, or, if he built up a stock in anticipation of sales, it was of the volumes most frequently asked for - school and university textbooks and standard works in theology, law, or medicine, constantly used by professional students and practitioners (Butler xiii). The printer, however, soon went beyond this and realized the potential of publication (Butler xiii). To expand his business, he undertook to create new demands (Butler xiii). The printer searched through old libraries for whatever books he thought the people might buy, if they were made available (Butler xiii). He also provided new works brought to him by living authors, and, finally, he came to order on his own, undertaking journalistic accounts of recent happenings (Butler xiii). In response to his initiative, the world learned to read books and not merely to study them (Butler xiii). The publishers made people read for its own sake (Butler xiii). This became the habit of educated men - a practice forgotten since the collapse of Roman civilization (Butler xiii). Books became a major factor in History. Publishers made known that the book could not only inform and entertain the masses but also affect their thoughts and actions (Butler xiv). It was used to spread new beliefs, to sway men's opinions, to win their support, and to arouse their passions (Butler xiv). During the first century of printing, the press became a potent weapon of public appeal and propaganda (Butler xiv). Modern man makes constant use of printed materials (Butler 1). People accept their presence in their lives as a matter of course -almost like the air we breathe and the ground we walk on (Butler 1). Unless our attention is drawn to it, we never notice the extent of our obligations to the printer (Butler 1). Yet, there is hardly a thing that we do or a source of delight that we enjoy that does not involve
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
The dramatic impact of the opening of the play Essays The dramatic impact of the opening of the play Essay The dramatic impact of the opening of the play Essay In the opening Birling begins talk about his business and his aspirations to join with Crofts Ltd. As he talks about his own business he refers to himself, on three separate occasions, as a hard-headed business man. Clearly showing his pride and how vain he is, this description reflects Birlings self image and shows the audience his characteristics. But the reference is also made three times and for many people 3 is an unlucky number. Birling continues with his speech and goes on to talk about war: And I say there isnt a chance of war. Bearing in mind that this play is set in 1912 World War One began only two years later, so this contradicts everything that Birling has just said. The audience at this time may have had to live through this war, and when Birling makes these comments they trust and believe him less and less as they know his predictions are rubbish. This establishes a message that is being directed at the audience; that the family talk nonsense and make grave mistakes. The Second World War then reinforces that the family do not learn from their mistakes, as did the countries that fought in these wars. Birling proceeds to talk about the voyage of the Titanic and says how it is unsinkable, absolutely unsinkable which the audience again know is false. The Titanic is quite an important reference in the play as it has layers of meaning that reflect facts about the Birling family. The meal that the Birling family are set to enjoy starts as a celebration with joyful conversation and talks of many happy things, much like the voyage of the Titanic. The ship was a thing of great importance; it was a huge solid structure that supposedly could not be broken, the Birlings also had this impression of themselves (solid and respectable). This shows how they thought they were better than most people simply because of their social status. Although as the play carries on events unfold that unearth very unpleasant things about the characters, and the family slowly falls apart, and sinks- exactly like the Titanic. Eric and Sheila can also be seen as survivors of the wreckage, as they seem to be the only ones who can and have been rescued from the awful family affair. Whereas the Birling parents could not be saved and didnt heed any warnings before the problem arose, much like the Titanic and its crew. The timing of the Inspectors entrance is crucial as it is immediately after Birling has finished his speech to Gerald and Eric about business and his predictions. In fact the final sentence before there is a ring at the door is a man has to mind his own business and look after himself and his own this ultimately sums up his feelings about others, below his social status and in his community which is exactly how his reactions are when he discovers Eva Smith has died. This is again reflected when he is more concerned about the Inspectors arrival rather than the poor girls death; Yes yes horrid business but I dont understand why you came here Inspector? As soon as the Inspector enters he takes control of the scene and the people around him, he is described as creating an impression of massiveness, solidity and purposefulness. This instantly creates an intimidating and authoritative figure, even though we already know hes an Inspector. Just before the Inspector enters Birling also asks for more light, as is directed in the stage directions before Act One by Priestley. The relevance of light can mean many things, as it can represent something holy and glorious, or it can be seen as a revelation in a serious of events. In this play the Inspector is mainly there to spread light over the past events and reveal the truth, however he can be seen as a supernatural power: deus ex machine. This phrase completely describes the Inspectors role in the play as he is dropped into the play and completely changes the mood and tone. This great figure then brings up the question, is he a real person? The name Goole reminds us of a ghost, as in ghoul, and the phrase dues ex machine means god out of a machine, maybe the Inspector is the voice of God or that of Priestley. Either way the inspector comes in to completely change current events and disrupt the family to reveal their true selves. The foreshadowing and irony that the inspector brings to the play is also greatly relevant, when he says: you seem to be a nice respectable family. The audience already know to some extent and later totally discover how untrue this is, another example of the unreliability of the family. The opening of the play aims to establish character and setting. It does this by simply describing each character we also discover how Birling is very arrogant and very narrow minded which is shown through his ridiculous assumptions. The Inspector is established as a very powerful and dominating character the reference to him and the light is also in the opening. The major themes are also introduced, such as the class and gender division and the moral and social responsibilities that are also linked with the age of the characters. Priestley makes the opening of An Inspector Calls very dramatic towards the end to draw and entice the audience to watch more. Priestley explores quite controversial issues of the time, and these issues make the audience interpret the character differently, showing how he uses the audiences personal experiences to influence their feelings towards the play.
Monday, March 2, 2020
The Smartest Job Search Strategies for Any Job Search You may think the best way to get a job is to search online, update your resume, and blitz it out in response to as many postings as you can find. But youÃ¢â¬â¢d be wrong. As it turns out, about 80% of jobs are not posted online. So no matter how many applications you send out, youÃ¢â¬â¢re still only working with about 20% of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s out there. There are also a number of common myths and misconceptions that can derail even the most tenacious of job seekers. Debunking these can do a world of difference. HereÃ¢â¬â¢s two things to remember:You donÃ¢â¬â¢t need a great deal of experience (or sometimes even any) to get your dream job.You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to settle until you get that job.So where does that leave you and your job search?You must always be prepared with a pitchThe best thing for job seekers to do- and this wonÃ¢â¬â¢t come as much of a surprise- is network. Network, network, network. That means first and foremost, coming up with a convincing and charming eleva tor pitch. An answer to the ubiquitous question: Ã¢â¬Å"So tell me about you.Ã¢â¬ YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to craft this perfectly to show your goals, experience, selling points, and just how perfect you are to match a potential employerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Then youÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to rehearse it until it comes out of your mouth as naturally as an exhale.Be sure to include a goal statement at the end. Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m Ã¢â¬ ¦. and interested in Ã¢â¬ ¦. and currently hoping to transition into Ã¢â¬ ¦ ideally in the X industry.Ã¢â¬ Stating your job search need as a goal ensures that youÃ¢â¬â¢re never outright asking anyone for favors; youÃ¢â¬â¢re simply stating who you are and what youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for, which wonÃ¢â¬â¢t annoy or offend any potential contacts.The shorter and simpler, the betterÃ¢â¬âjust be smartWhen youÃ¢â¬â¢re working on your resume, be sure to err on the side of brevity. DO include bullet points to maximize easy reading, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t include too many - and make sure the ones you do include are each doing something for you. Make them as results-driven as possible, rather than heavy on the job description. Lead with your best bullet.Once you get an interview, be sure to be as well prepared as you were for networking. Though, there, the big question is Ã¢â¬Å"Tell us a little about your biggest weakness.Ã¢â¬ You may have been told that the best strategy here is to claim that youÃ¢â¬â¢re an incurable perfectionist. The internet, more often than not, will counsel you in this direction. But the Internet is wrong. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll just sound insincere. The better strategy is to choose something youÃ¢â¬â¢ve actually been working to improve. Explain how it was a challenge to you in the past, and what youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been doing, actively, to turn it into a strength instead. Give an example of your progress just to prove youÃ¢â¬â¢re not full of baloney.ItÃ¢â¬â¢s okay to make demandsOnce you get an offer, be sure not to roll over and accept the salary without question. It is okay and expected to negotiate. A few tips:DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be the first person to suggest a number. The person who speaks first in this arena alwaysIf they ask you to give a number first, deflect. Say that youÃ¢â¬â¢re negotiable, but youÃ¢â¬â¢d like to hear their range to see whether it fits for you.Do research before going into negotiations. Figure out what is standard at that company and in that position within the industry. And donÃ¢â¬â¢t ask for a number extremely outside of that range.Tell them instead that youÃ¢â¬â¢re being considered in the range of the top third of that bracket, but ensure that youÃ¢â¬â¢re negotiable.If you let go of some of the most common misapprehensions and job search myths, you should have a much better, clear-eyed approach that will likely start to get you the results you need.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
How strongly has colonialism shaped the trajectories of post-colonial African countries Discuss using one or several examples - Essay Example Would they have been richer or poorer today? This question has elicited debate for more than five decades, and also instigating exciting research by economic historians in colonial archives, an aspect, which has put the debate on a sound empirical footing. Some study findings have shown evidence of improved economic development outcomes within the period of colonialism. For instance, in the British West Africa, there was an increase of real wages (Frankema and Van Waaijenburg 2005, 34). Additionally, the status of military recruits in British East Africa and Ghana indicated that the height was increased during the colonial period, a pointer of increasing prosperity. Other arguments are that colonial rule was predatory. Should we consider this as evidence that colonialism was good for development in African countries? It should be considered that assessing the impact of colonialism does not only involve just looking at raw numbers, but also taking into consideration the counterfactual . We need to think on what the trajectories of African societies would have been at present if colonialism did not take place. Reid, (2002) observe that most African countries saw a steady rise on incomes during the colonial period. Africans reaped the benefits in development of infrastructure such as roads and railways as well as the mining technology. Colonization also led to deep integration of these African states into the World Trade Center and the world economy (115). However, it is still unclear n the extent by which such developments were contributed by colonialism and whether the development would have happened anyway due to the wake of global trade expansions or any other reason. The fact that there was a rise in the standard of living does not imply that all peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s living standards improved. Just taking an example from South Africa, the immiserising impact of land expropriation and establishment of Ã¢â¬Å"dual economiesÃ¢â¬ on